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Study on the Inter-Relations between Intellectual Property Rights Regimes and the Conservation of Genetic Resources

Study on the Inter-Relations between Intellectual Property Rights Regimes and the Conservation of Genetic Resources

Gehl Sampath, Padmashree; Richard G. Tarasofsky 2002: Study on the Inter-Relations between Intellectual Property Rights Regimes and the Conservation of Genetic Resources. Berlin.


Citation

Gehl Sampath, Padmashree; Richard G. Tarasofsky 2002: Study on the Inter-Relations between Intellectual Property Rights Regimes and the Conservation of Genetic Resources. Berlin.

Language
English
Funding
Year
2002
Dimension
148 pp.
Project ID
1830
Table of Contents

1 Introduction
2 Intellectual property rights and the conservation of genetic resources in international law and policy: an overview
2.1 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
2.1.1 The provisions of the Convention
2.1.2 Key decisions of the CBD COP
2.2 WTO Agreement on the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
2.2.3 Patents
2.2.4 Trademarks
2.2.5 Geographic Indications
2.2.6 Trade Secrets
2.2.7 Petty Patents
2.2.8 Further developments in the WTO
2.3 UPOV System
2.4 World Intellectual Property Organization
2.5 International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
2.6 Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)
3 Negative Linkages between IPRs and the conservation of genetic resources
3.1 Claims and Counterclaims
3.2 Evaluating Claims: The Process of Research in the Agricultural, Pharmaceutical, Horticultural and Botanical Sectors
3.2.1 Biotechnological Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Sector
3.2.2 The Botanical Sector
3.2.3 Agricultural Biotechnology and Its Impact on Sustainable Use and Conservation of Genetic Resources
3.2.4 The Process of R & D in the Horticultural Sector
4 Conservation of Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights: Harnessing the Positive Linkages
4.1 Claims and Counterclaims Regarding the Positive Impacts of IPRs on Sustainable Use and Conservation of Genetic Resources
4.2 The Advantages of Intellectual Property Rights on Genetic Resources
4.2.1 Benefits of Agricultural Biotechnology
4.2.2 Pharmaceutical Self-Sufficiency
4.2.3 Biotechnology and its Role in Aiding Biodiversity Conservation
4.2.4 IPRs and the promotion of technology transfer to enhance conservation of genetic resources
4.3 Implications of Ex-Situ  Conservation on In-situ  Conservation of Genetic Resources
4.4 The Relevance of Incentives for the Conservation of Genetic Resources: General Introduction
4.4.1 National legislation to harness IPRs for conservation
4.4.2 Regional legal instruments that harness IPRs for conservation
4.4.3 Private initiatives and codes of conduct
4.4.4 Private contractual arrangements
5 Can Sui generis Regimes and IPRs Protect Traditional Ecological Knowledge?
5.1 The Nature of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and the Relevance of a Hybrid Solution
5.1.1 Biodiversity and Common Property Resource Management
5.1.2 Traditional Knowledge and Traditional Ecological Knowledge: The Internal Dynamics
5.1.3 The Impact of a Community Intellectual Property Right (CIPR) on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources
5.1.4 A Hybrid Package of Rights to Promote In–Situ  Conservation Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge
5.2 The Impact of Conventional Intellectual Property Rights on Traditional Ecological Knowledge: An Investigation
5.2.1 Article 27(3)(b) of the TRIPs Agreement and  the Protection of Traditional Knowledge
5.2.2 A Sectoral Assessment of Scope for Usage of Traditional Knowledge, PIC and Benefit-Sharing
6 Intellectual Property Rights and Conservation of Genetic Resources: Preliminary Evidence and Options
6.1 Conservation Aims and Intellectual Property Rights: Findings and Recommendations
6.1.1 Environmental Justifications for Restrictions of IPRs for Biotechnology: The Findings
6.1.2 Pharmaceutical and Botanical Sectors
6.1.3 Plant Variety Protection and Horticulture
6.2 Options for Regulators Aimed At  Industry For Encouraging Conservation of Genetic Resources
6.2.1 Pharmaceutical and Botanical Medicines Sector
6.2.2 Plant Variety Protection and Horticulture
6.3 Harnessing the Positive Effects of Intellectual Property Rights for Developing Countries
6.4 Conservation Aims and the Protection of Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Findings and Recommendations
6.4.1 Environmental Justifications for the Establishment of Community Intellectual Property Rights Through Sui Generis Systems: The Findings
6.4.2 Options for National Sui generis  Regimes on Traditional Knowledge
7 Conclusions: Implications for Policy Makers
7.1 Action at the Global Level
7.1.1 Ensuring that the WTO TRIPS Agreement does supports and does not undermine the conservation of genetic resources
7.1.2 Further development and implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity
7.1.3 World Intellectual Property Right Organization (WIPO)
7.1.4 Further developing the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
7.2 Specific Recommendations aimed at National governments
7.2.1 IPR application process
7.3 Improving and building capacity in developing countries
7.3.2 Supporting Public Sector Research in Developing Countries
7.4 Specific Recommendations aimed at Traditional and Local Communities
8 Bibliography
9 Acronyms
10 Appendix I: Replies to Questionnaires
10.1 Countries
10.2 Companies
10.2.1 Botanical
10.2.2 Pharaceutical
11 Summary
11.1 Main Findings
11.2 Recommendations