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Implementation of the Renewable-Energy-Directive by the EU Member States

Implementation of the Renewable-Energy-Directive by the EU Member States

Implementation of the Renewable-Energy-Directive by the EU Member States


The EU set ambitious targets: The share of energy from renewable sources must rise to 20% by 2020. The 2009 Renewable Energy Directive is the main instrument to reach this target. On behalf of the European Commission, Ecologic Institute is assessing the state of the implementation of this directive in the UK and Germany.

In 2007, EU Heads of state and government agreed on a set of ambitious climate and energy targets. By 2020, the share of renewable energy of the EU’s total energy consumption shall be increased to 20%, the EU greenhouse gas emission shall be reduced by at least 20% compared to 1990 levels, and energy savings shall be increased to 20%.

Directive 2009/28/EC of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (Renewable Energy Directive) is one of the main instruments for this objective. For the first time, obligatory national targets on renewable energy were set. For Germany, this target amounts to 18%. By mid 2010, Member States had to submit National Renewable Energy Action Plans to the Commission, in which they had to present their national implementation measures.

In this project, Ecologic Institute, together with its partners, assesses the state of the implementation in all 27 member States. Ecologic Institute is in charge of examining Germany and UK. Best practice examples as well as deficits will be highlighted. On the basis of the results, the European Commission might take measures against infringement of the implementation obligations . Moreover, Ecologic Institute will answer complaints that are lodged with the European Commission concerning the implementation of the Directive.

The implementation measures are examined against a number of assessment criteria. Generally speaking, the basis of the evaluation is the National Renewable Energy Action Plans and the implementation measures submitted by Member States to the European Commission. The latter are also translated into English. In total, the project consortium covers all 27 Member States. Ecologic Institute is assessing the implementation of the Directive in Germany and the United Kingdom.
The following assessment criteria are applied:

  • Completeness: Are the relevant provisions of the Renewable-Energy-Directive fully or only partly covered by national legislation?
  • Sufficiency: Are the measures suited to meet the requirements of the European Union law as interpreted by the ECJ concerning the transposition of directives?
  • Consistency: Do the implementation measures satisfy the requirements of the Renewable Energy Directive?
  • Effectiveness: Do the measures have the potential to ensure the growth of renewable energy in the relevant Member State?
  • Legal quality: Do the measures create a solid and reliable regulatory framework?
  • Viability: Are the measures sufficient to reach the national obligatory target of the relevant Member States?


Katharina Umpfenbach
Gesa Homann LLM
Project ID
Renewable Energy, Ecologic Legal, Implementation, Directive, Biomass, Biofuels, Sustainability, Buidlings, Heating and Cooling, Transport, Electricity, European Union