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The Kyoto-Protocol


The Kyoto-Protocol

International Climate Policy for the 21st Century

The adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997 was a major achievement in the endeavour to tackle the problem of global climate change at the dawn of the 21st century. After many years of involvement in the negotiation process, the book's two internationally recognised authors now offer the international community a first hand and inside perspective of the debate on the Kyoto Protocol.

The book provides a comprehensive scholarly analysis of the history and content of the Protocol itself as well as of the economic, political and legal implications of its implementation. It also presents a perspective for the further development of the climate regime. These important features make this book an indispensable working tool for policy makers, negotiators, academics and all those actively involved and interested in climate change issues in both the developed and developing world.

The English book was published by Springer-Verlag and can be ordered e.g. from Amazon at the price of 49,99 €.


Oberthür, Sebastian and Hermann E. Ott 2000: The KYOTO-PROTOCOL. International Climate Policy for the 21st Century. Heidelberg/Berlin: Springer.

English, German
Hermann E. Ott
359 pp.
Project ID
Table of Contents

Part I Building Blocks and Negotiating History

1 The Science of Climate Change
1.1 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
1.2 Causes and Effects
1.3 Climate Sceptics
1.4 Acting under Uncertainty

2 Key Players and Interests
2.1 Industrialised Leader: The European Union
2.2 Industrialised Laggards:"JUSSCANNZ"
2.3 Russia and the "Countries with Economies in Transition"
2.4 The Developing World: A Crumbling Block
2.5 Non-Governmental and International Organisations

3 The Framework Convention on Climate Change: The Legal Basis of International Action
3.1 Objective, Principles and Obligations
3.2 Institutional and Procedural Predeterminations
3.3 Development of the Convention

4 The Berlin Mandate and the AGBM Process
4.1 The Run-up to Berlin
4.2 The Berlin Mandate
4.3 The Issues
4.4 The AGBM Process: The First Year
4.5 Increasing the Pressure: The Geneva Declaration
4.6 Approaching Kyoto

5 Outside the Climate Arena: Multilateral and Bilateral Diplomacy
5.1 International Organisations
5.2 Rio + 5: UNGASS
5.3 Regional Developments
5.4 Bilateral Diplomacy

6. Changing the Balance: Governmental and Non-governmental Developments
6.1 Strengthening EU Leadership
6.2 Developments in the US
6.3 Entrenching Positions: Other JUSSCANNZ Countries
6.4 Business: Some Going Dirty
6.5 ...Others Going Green
6.6 Environmental NGOs

7 Kyoto: The Endgame
7.1 Japan
7.2 The Dynamics of the Kyoto Meeting
7.3 Modern Communication Technologies
7.4 The "Estrada Factor"
7.5 Approaching the Final Show-down
7.6 Negotiation by Exhaustion

Part II The Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol: A Commentary

8 Overview of Part II

9 Preamble and Definitions (Articel 1)
9.1 Preamble
9.2 Definitions

10 Policies and Measures (Article 2)
10.1 Negotiating History
10.2 PAMs in the Kyoto Protocol
10.3 Assessment and Outlook

11 Emission Limitation and Reduction Commitments (Article 3)
11.1 Negotiating History
11.2 The Kyoto Targets: What are the Limits to Emissions?
11.3 The Issue of Sinks (Land-use Change and Forestry)
11.4 Assessment and Outlook

12 Joint Fulfilment of Commitments (Article 4)
12.1 Negotiating History
12.2 The Rules Applying to Bubbling
12.3 Post-Kyoto Developments in the European Union
12.4 Assessment and Outlook

13 Joint Implementation (Article 6)
13.1 Negotiating History
13.2 The Rules Applying to Joint Implementation
13.3 Assessment and Outlook

14 The Clean Development Mechanism (Article 12)
14.1 Negotiating History
14.2 The Rules Applying to the CDM
14.3 Assessment and Outlook

15 Emissions Trading (Article 17)
15.1 Negotiating History
15.2 The Rules Applying to Emissions Trading
15.3 Assessment and Outlook

16 Implementation Review and Compliance (Articles 5, 7, 8, 16, 18, 19)
16.1 The Review of National Communications (Articles 5, 7, 8)
16.2 The Multilateral Consultative Process (Article 16)
16.3 The Procedure on Non-compliance (Article 18)
16.4 Dispute Settlement (Article 19)

17 Developing Country Participation (Articles 10, 11)
17.1 Negotiating History
17.2 The Outcome: Articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto Protocol
17.3 Assessment and Outlook

18 Institutions (Articles 13, 14, 15)
18.1 Negotiating History
18.2 The Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of the Parties (COP/MOP) (Article 13)
18.3 The Secretariat (Article 14)
18.4 The Subsidiary Bodies (Articles 15)
18.5 Ad Hoc Bodies

19 Review, Development and Amendment of the Kyoto Protocol (Articles 3.9, 9, 20, 21)
19.1 Negotiating History
19.2 The Rules Applying to Review and Development
19.3 Amendments to the Protocol and its Annex
19.4 Assessment and Outlook

20 Final Provisions of the Kyoto Protocol (Articles 22-28)
20.1 Signature, ratification and Entry into Force (Articles 24, 25)
20.2 Voting Rights, Depositary, Reservations and Withdrawal (Articles 22, 23, 26, 27 and 28)

Part III Conclusions and Outlook

21 Lessons from the Kyoto Process
21.1 The Importance of Leadership
21.2 The Importance of Situational Factors
21.3 Climate Policy 21: High Politics in Global Society

22 Evaluation of the Kyoto Protocol

23. Synergies and Conflicts with Other International Institutions
23.1 GATT/WTO and Multilateral Investment Rules
23.2 The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
23.3 The Conventions on Biodiversity and Desertification

24. The Landscape of International Climate Politics at the Turn of the Century
24.1 The Post-Kyoto International Process: Buenos Aires and Beyond
24.2 The European Union and the Applicant Countries
24.3 The "Umbrella Group"
24.4 Developing Countries
24.5 Non-governmental Developments
24.6 Conclusion: The State of Climate Policy and Some Underlying Causes

25 A View from the Anthill: Towards a Leadership Initiative on Climate Change
25.1 The Rationale of a Leadership Initiative on Climate Change
25.2 The First Element of a leadership Initiative: Early Ratification
25.3 The Second Element of a Leadership Initiative: Measures for Domestic Implementation and their Co-ordination
25.4 The Third Element of a Leadership Initiative: Enhanced Involvement of Developing Countries
25.5 Conclusion


Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change



Climate Change, Developing World, NGO, International Organisations, Kyoto Protocol, United Nations, European Union, Russia