• English
  • Deutsch
Facebook icon
LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
YouTube icon
Header image Ecologic

Amsterdam and the Environment


Amsterdam and the Environment

An Analysis of the Treaty of Amsterdam and its effects on the Environmental Policy of the European Union and its Member States

This study analyses the impact that the Amsterdam Treaty will have on European environmental policy. One central issue of the analysis was the conflict of interest between environmental concerns and the common market.


Bär, Stefani; R. Andreas Kraemer; Harriet Nowell Smith 1998: Amsterdam and the Environment. An Analysis of the Treaty of Amsterdam and its effects on the Environmental Policy of the European Union and its Member States. Ecologic - Centre for International and European Environmental Research, Berlin. The study is available in English, French, and German.

English, French, German
Stefani Bär
Harriet Nowell Smith
57 pp.
Project ID
Table of Contents

I Introduction and Overview
1.1 Background and Objectives
1.2 Methodology
1.3 The Environmental Impact of the Treaty of Amsterdam
1.4 Objectives of the European Union and the European Community
1.5 Environmental Policy and Sustainable Development
1 .6 Decision-making in environmental policy
1.7 Internal Market and Environmental Protection Measures
1.8 The Balance between the Internal Market and the Environment
1.9 Other Policy Areas of Relevance to the Protection of the Environment
2 The Road towards the Treaty changes at Amsterdam
2.1 The Treaty Establishing the European Community of 1957
2.2 The Single European Act of 1987
2.3 Treaty changes at Maastricht
3 Analysis of the Amsterdam Changes
3.1 Seventh Indent of the Preamble to the Treaty on European Union
3.1.1 The second and the third pillars and sustainable development
3.2 Article B of the TEU
3.3 Article 2 of the Treaty on the European Community
3.3.1 The Role of the Principles
3.3.2 Introducing ‘sustainable development’ into the German version of Article 2 TEC
3.4 Article 3c of the Treaty on the European Community (Integration Clause)
3.4.1 The Development of the Integration Principle
3.4.2 Does Environmental Protection have Priority2
3.4.3 Expanding or reducing the area of activity
3.4.4 The meaning of ‘policies and activities’ in the new Article 3c TEC
3.4.5 ‘Promoting sustainable development’ in Article 3c TEC
3.4.6 Commission Proposals for Environmental Impact Assessments
3.5 Article lOOa of the TEC: the Environmental Guarantee
3.6 Applying stricter national measures
3.6.1 Harmonising laws under Article lOOa TEC
3.6.2 Dropping the qualified majority requirement
3.6.3 Maintaining National Standards
3.6.4 Introducing stricter environmental standards
3.6.5 The Harmonisation measures of the Commission (Article 1 OOa para. 4, 5)
3.6.6 Confenlng Duties on the Parliament and on the Commission
3.6.7 The requirements of paragraph 6 of Article 1 OOa TEC
3.6.8 Initiatives by Member States (Article 1 OOa para. 7 and 8)
3.6.9 Discussion of changes to Article 1 OOa TEC
3.7 Article 1 30r TEC (Objectives, protection clauses)
3.8 Article 130s TEC (Enacting Regulations)
3.8.1 Significance of Changes to the Legislative Process
3.8.2 Parliament’s Increased Influence
3.8.3 The Effect on the Relationship between Article lOOa and Article 130s TEC
3.8.4 Consultation of the Committee of the Region
3.8.5 Maintaining the Principle of Unanimity
4 Other Changes with Possible Environmental Consequences
4.1 Changes in the Co-Decision procedure
4.2 Commentary on the "Resolution of Comitology"
4.3 Flexibility
4.4 Access to Information within the European Community
4.5 Article 228 TEC lnternational Agreements
4.6 Article 129 TEC Public Health
4.7 Article 1 29a TEC Consumer Protection
5 Conclusions
6 Works Cited