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Factor X

Factor X

Challenges, Implementation Strategies and Examples for a Sustainable Use of Natural Resources
Moving towards a more Resource-Efficient World

Ecologic Institute assisted in the editing and publication of the book "Factor X - Challenges, Implementation Strategies and Examples for a Sustainable Use of Natural Resources". Initiated by the German Environment Agency, the book describes and analyses necessities for a more resource-efficient world. It is composed of 31 contributions from authors across Europe, discussing solutions for a more sustainable use of natural resources and presenting good practice examples – such as repair services, digitalised construction projects and chemical leasing. The book addresses decision-makers and experts from the fields of policy development, industry, academia, civil society, and the media. Ecologic Institute's Mandy Hinzmann, Nick Evans, Terri Kafyeke, Stephen Bell and Martin Hirschnitz-Garbers took on the role of managing editors. R. Andreas Kraemer is the author of one contribution on the relationship between the financial system and resource industries.


Lehmann, Harry (Ed.) 2017: Factor X. Challenges, Implementation Strategies and Examples for a Sustainable Use of Natural Resources. [Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science 32]. Springer International Publishing AG.

Published In
Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science
-10: 978-3-319-50079-9, ISBN-13: 978-3-319-50078-2
452 pp.
Project ID
Table of Contents

Factor X – 25 Years – "Factor X Concept" Is Essential for Achieving Sustainable Development
Lehmann, Harry (et al.)

Necessities for a Resource Efficient Europe
Rijnhout, Leida (et al.)

Global Megatrends and Resource Use – A Systemic Reflection
Lorenz, Ullrich (et al.)

Data, Indicators and Targets for Comprehensive Resource Policies
Lutter, Stephan (et al.)

The Critical Raw Materials Concept: Subjective, Multifactorial and Ever-Developing
Kosmol, Jan (et al.)

Equitable, Just Access to Natural Resources: Environmental Narratives during Worsening Climate Crises
Bond, Patrick

Circular Economy: Origins and Future Orientations
Antikainen, Riina (et al.)

Financial System, and Energy and Resource Husbandry
Kraemer, R. Andreas

Developing Resource Competence – Anchoring Resource Conservation and Efficiency in the German Education System
Baedeker, Carolin (et al.)

The Way from Problem Scope Towards the Vision of a Low Resource Society – The First Working Period of the Resources Commission at the German Environment Agency (KRU)
Hermann, Sascha (et al.)

Implementing Resource Efficiency in Europe – Overview of Policies, Instruments and Targets in 32 European Countries
Kaźmierczyk, Paweł

The Resource Nexus and Resource Efficiency: What a Nexus Perspective Adds to the Story
Bleischwitz, Raimund (et al.)

Germany’s Resource Efficiency Agenda: Driving Momentum on the National Level and Beyond
Kaiser, Reinhard

Results of Three Cost-Effective, Innovative and Transferable Resource-Efficiency Instruments for Industries in the Basque Country
Elgorriaga Kunze, Ander (et al.)

The Circular Economy Package of the European Union
Wuttke, Joachim

Saving Natural Resources Through Conversion and Constructional Densification in Urban Areas: Ecological Potentials and Limits
Reißmann, Daniel (et al.)

The Path to Degrowth for a Sustainable Society
Latouche, Serge

Social Innovation Repair – The R.U.S.Z Case: A Systemic Approach Contributing to the Unplanned Obsolescence of Capitalism
Eisenriegler, Sepp (et al.)

Resource Efficiency in the Building Sector
Dosch, Klaus

Eco Efficiency and Circular Production: Cases from the Netherlands’ Eastern Region
Butter, Frank A. G. (et al.)

An Approach to Identify Resource Patterns on a Neighborhood Level
Österbring, Magnus (et al.)

Strategic Business Examples from Finland: The Growth of the Smartup Industry
Kaskinen, Tuuli (et al.)

Circular Flanders: Adaptive Policy for a Circular Economy
Deckmyn, Sam

The 100 Companies Project Resource Efficient Practice Cases from Producing Industry
Schmidt, Mario

Lifestyle Material Footprint of Finnish Households – Insights, Targets, Transitions
Lettenmeier, Michael

sustainable development, resource conservation, resource efficiency, indicators, best practice examples,