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Macroeconomic and Societal Impacts of Mainstreaming the Circular Economy

Macroeconomic and Societal Impacts of Mainstreaming the Circular Economy

This report summarizes the key findings of the CIRCULAR IMPACTS project and provides an impact analysis setting out impacts of circular-economy transitions on the macroeconomy and society. The results of case studies conducted within the project are included as are results from modelling done by external parties, accompanied by an overview of the methodologies used. This report thus provides an overview of presently available quantitative evidence on the macroeconomic and societal impacts of the circular economy. In addition, an overview of recent policy development on EU level in relation to the circular economy is provided, as are the key conclusions and policy messages from the project. Lastly, recommendations for future circular economy research are given, with the aim of improving scenario-based impact analyses for the European policymaking context.


Best, Aaron et. al. 2018: Macroeconomic and Societal Impacts of Mainstreaming the Circular Economy. Ecologic Institute: Berlin.


With contributions by: Geert Woltjer (Wageningen University and Research) and Vasileios Rizos (CEPS)

78 pp.
Project ID
Table of Contents

Executive Summary
1 :: Introduction
2 :: Key Findings of CIRCULAR IMPACTS
2.1 Defining the circular economy
2.2 The circular economy and the European Semester
2.3 Methodologies for analysing the impacts of circular-economy transitions
2.3.1 Case-study methodology
2.3.2 Scenario-based methodologies
2.3.3 Statistics and indicators
3 :: Macroeconomic and Societal Impacts of the Circular Economy
3.1 Key components of the circular economy
3.2 Case study results
3.3 Scenario analyses: external modelling results
4 :: Recent Policies and Future Research
4.1 Recent policy developments
4.2 Reflecting on the CIRCULAR IMPACTS project
4.3 Recommendations for future research
5 :: References
6 :: List of Partners
Annex. Overview of macroeconomic modelling results