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Modelling the Factors Influencing the Commercialisation of Paper Mulberry Bark

Modelling the Factors Influencing the Commercialisation of Paper Mulberry Bark

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can be an important source of income for rural inhabitants of Laos. One such NTFP, which has been promoted by the government of Laos, is the paper mulberry tree (Broussonetia papyrifera (L) Vent). This study was performed to understand the factors influencing the commercialisation of paper mulberry bark in Oudomxay province (Northern Laos) and to investigate the potential of the paper mulberry tree as a source of steady income.

The perceptions of the stakeholders along the supply chain were analysed and a causal map was built for each stakeholder group: farmers, district traders, exporters, manufacturers, extensionists and consultants. The results of causal mapping were discussed during a multi-stakeholder process (a participatory supply chain analysis). Stakeholder groups discussed and agreed on an action plan to improve the supply of paper mulberry bark. A year later, the same stakeholders met again to reflect upon the progress made and the issues that hindered them to implement the action plan. These results were used to triangulate the results of causal mapping. The main factors hindering the commercialisation of this NTFP are:

  1. no incentives to cultivation (insecure land tenure; no price incentives);
  2. poor information distribution (in relation to prices and to quality criteria);
  3. lack of village marketing group;
  4. insecurity of exchange contracts (distrust and no legal capacity for enforcement).

Under the current social, economic and political framework, it is unlikely that this NTFP can be a source of cash income, still it is harvested when other options fail. The study shows that none of the three models found in the literature of commercialisation (domestication, institutional and embeddedness) could alone capture all the processes observed for paper mulberry bark. However, the three models are complementary and allowed to situate the empirical evidence. This reinforces the need for a multi-disciplinary approach if the goal is to reach a holistic understanding of empirical data and real-life situations.

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Citation

Ribero, Maria Miguel 2009: Modelling the factors influencing the commercialisation of paper mulberry bark. In: Dissertationen der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien. Band 70. Guthmann-Peterson.

Language
English
Publisher
Year
2009
Published In
Dissertationen der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien
ISBN
978-3-900782-15-3
Dimension
280 pp.
Table of Contents
  • CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    • 1.2 THE CASE STUDY   
    • 1.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIALISATION OF NTFPS   
    • 1.4 OUTLINE OF THE THESIS
    • 1.5 SUMMARY
  • CHAPTER 2 – DEVELOPING A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
    • 2.1 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO STUDY SUPPLY CHAINS
    • 2.2 PROMOTING COMMERCIALISATION IN SUPPLY CHAINS OF NTFPS   
    • 2.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIALISATION OF NTFPS
      • Domestication model & criticism of the model   
      • Institutional model & criticism of the model   
      • Embeddedness model & criticism of the model   
    • 2.4 MULTI-STAKEHOLDER PROCESSES (MSPS) EFFECTS ON THE COMMERCIALISATION OF NTFPS
      • MSPs & joint problem-solving   
      • MSPs & information asymmetries   
      • MSPs & stakeholders’ empowerment
  • CHAPTER 3 - THE CASE STUDY AND METHODOLOGY
    • 3.1 THE CASE STUDY   
    • 3.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      • Justification of the use of constructivism paradigm and the use of soft-systems thinking to study the supply chain   
      • Justification for the use of a case study analysis as a research design   
      • Causal mapping   
      • Multi-stakeholder process: Participatory supply chain analysis and implementation   
    • 3.3 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND THE POSITION OF THE RESEARCHER
      • Ethical considerations   
      • Position of the researcher
  • CHAPTER 4 - RESULTS
    • 4.1 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSAL MAP OF EACH FUNCTIONAL GROUP
    • 4.2. THE AGGREGATED CAUSAL MAP   
    • 4.3 RESULTS OF THE PARTICIPATORY SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS   
  • CHAPTER 5 - DISCUSSION
    • 5.1 EMPIRICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING COMMERCIALISATION
      • Increased cultivation of paper mulberry
      • Information distribution   
      • Forming farmers’ marketing groups   
      • Security in the contracting   
    • 5.2 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THEORETICAL MODELS AND EMPIRICAL DATA
      • The domestication model to explain the factors and relationships found in the empirical data
      • The institutional model to explain the factors and relationships found in the empirical data   
      • The embeddedness model to explain the factors and relations found in the empirical data   
  • CHAPTER 6 - CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
    • Socio-economic factors influencing commercialisation of paper mulberry bark   
    • Relationships between theoretical models and empirical data
    • Implications for theory on the commercialisation of NTFPs
    • Implications for development policy and practice in Laos
    • Limitations
    • Implications for further research
  • REFERENCES
Keywords
Non-timber forest products, Development, Forestry, Sustainability, Stakeholder participation, Multi-stakeholder processes, supply chain analysis, Laos, South East Asia