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Institutional Interaction to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions from International Transport


Institutional Interaction to Address Greenhouse Gas Emissions from International Transport

ICAO, IMO and the Kyoto Protocol

In response to Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) have begun to consider greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international aviation and shipping. However, neither ICAO nor IMO have taken any effective action on the issue yet and progress can be characterised as slow. But there are options for furthering the progress within ICAO and IMO.

The lack of action of both institutions has so far not been made up for by measures within the climate change regime or by individual countries. An important motivation for the efforts of ICAO and IMO so far has been the potential regulatory competition with the climate change regime. However, given the lack of political will to act on the issue within the latter, this motivation has not been very forceful. Against this backdrop, there there appear to exist in particular three options for furthering progress within ICAO and IMO, namely (1) enhancing the threat of regulation of GHG emissions from international transport under the climate change regime; (2) undertaking unilateral domestic action by various countries (in particular the EU); and (3) furthering a learning process within ICAO and IMO. Furthermore, a closer coordination of efforts under ICAO, IMO and the climate change regime could facilitate and accelerate progress.

You can order this article at the Elsevier-website.


Oberthür, Sebastian 2003: “Institutional Interaction to Address Greehouse Gas Emissions from International Transport: ICAO, IMO and the Kyoto Protocol”. Climate Policy, Vol. 2003, No. 3, 191-205.

Published In
Journal: Climate Policy , Vol. 3 | No.3
1469-3062 (Print), 1752-7457 (Online)
14 pp.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. The request of the climate change regime to ICAO and IMO: background
3. ICAO and IMO: structure and competences
4. The response by ICAO and IMO
5. Progress within the UNFCCC and efforts by individual parties
6. The demand for co-ordination
7. Prospect and conclusions
aviation, bunker fuels, UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol, Institutional Interaction, International Maritime Organization IMO, Interanational Civil Aviation Organization, Shipping ICAO,