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Heavily Modified Water Bodies


Heavily Modified Water Bodies

Synthesis of 34 Case Studies in Europe

This book is the result of a European project on heavily modified water bodies, carried out in the context of the Common Implementation Strategy of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). It presents and synthesises the results of thirty-four European case studies on the identification and designation of heavily modified water bodies.

Emphasis is placed on the particular methods used in the case studies in the process of identification and designation, and further research needs are identified. The contents of this book have served as the basis for the production of the agreed European Guidance on artificial and heavily modified water bodies to be used by practitioners in the implementation of the WFD.
The book is written in English and can be ordered from Springer at the price of 89,95 €.

Read more about the project Heavily Modified Water Bodies.


Kampa, Eleftheria and Wenke Hansen 2004: Heavily Modified Water Bodies. Synthesis of 34 Case Studies in Europe. [International and European Environmental Policy Studies]. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.

Published In
Series: International and European Environmental Policy Series
322 pp.
Project ID
959-1, 959-2, 959-3, 959-5, 959-6
Table of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Policy Background
1.1.1 The Common Implementation Strategy of the Water Framework Directive
1.1.2 CIS Working Group on Heavily Modified Water Bodies
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Methodology
1.4 Scope and Structure

2 Guidance on Heavily Modified and Artificial Water Bodies

3 Selection of Case Studies
3.1 Overview of the Case Studies

4 Identification of Water Bodies
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Criteria for the Identification of Water Bodies
4.2.1 Overall application of Identification Criteria
4.2.2 Identification Criteria for Different Water Categories
4.3 Results
4.3.1 Overview of Water Body Identification Results in the HMWB Case Studies
4.3.2 Scale of Water Body Identification
4.4 Differentiation of Artificial Water Bodies
4.5 Conclusions and Discussion

5 Uses, Physical Alterations and Impacts to Hydromorphology
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Methods for the Description of Specified Uses
5.3 Methods for the Description of Physical Alterations
5.4 Methods for the Evaluation of Impacts upon Hydromorphology
5.5 Results on Specified Uses and Physical Alterations
5.6 Results on Hydromorphological Impacts
5.7 Conclusions and Discussion

6 Ecological Status
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Biological Quality Elements
6.2.1 Quality Elements and Assessment Methods
6.2.2 Impacts of Specified Uses and Physical Alterations
6.2.3 Other Impacts
6.3 Physicochemical Quality Elements
6.3.1 Quality Elements and Assessment Methods
6.3.2 Impacts of Specified Uses and Physical Alterations
6.3.3 Other Impacts
6.4 Hydromorphological Quality Elements
6.5 Assessment of Current Ecological Status
6.5.1 Overview of Methods
6.5.2 Selection of Reference Conditions
6.5.3 Results on the Definition of Current Ecological Status
6.6 Conclusions and Discussion

7 Provisional Identification of Water Bodies as Heavily Modified
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Results
7.3 Criteria and Methods
7.4 Scope and Extent of Provisional Identification
7.5 Conclusions and Discussion

8 Designation of Heavily Modified Water Bodies
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Designation Test 4(3)(a):Assessment of Necessary Restoration Measures to Achieve GES
8.2.1 Identification of the Necessary Restoration Measures
8.2.2 Assessment of Significant Adverse Effects on the Specified Use or the Wider Environment
8.3 Designation Test 4(3)(b):Assessment of Other Environmental Options
8.3.1 Identifying “Other Means ”
8.3.2 Assessment of “Technical Feasibility ”
8.3.3 Assessment of “Significantly Better Environmental Option ”
8.3.4 Assessment of “Disproportionate Costs ”
8.4 Examples of Different Designation Approaches
8.5 Overview of Results on HMWB Designation
8.6 Conclusions and Discussion

9 Definition of Maximum Ecological Potential
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Methods for the Definition of MEP
9.2.1 Mitigation Measures for Achieving MEP
9.2.2 Quality Elements and their Values at MEP
9.3 Conclusions and Discussion

10 Definition of Good Ecological Potential
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Methods for the Definition of GEP
10.3 Results
10.4 Programme of Measures for Protecting and Enhancing Ecological Quality
10.5 Conclusions and Discussion

11 Conclusions and Outlook

12 Bibliography
12.1 Case Studies
12.2 WFD-CIS Documents
12.3 General Literature

13 Annex I: Contributing Authors
14 Annex II: Case Study Evaluation Tables and Methods

EU Water Framework Directive, WFD, Water management, Heavily Modified Water Bodies, Artificial Water Bodies, River Basin, Spain, France, Great Britain, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Greece, Europe, Bregenzerach, Danube, Wienfluss, Dender River, Dhünn River, Mulde River, Elbe River, Lahn River, Seefelder Aach River, Ruhr River, Lozoya River, Lake Kemijärvi, Authie River, Saar River, Rhone River, Nestos River, Haringvliet Estuary, Hagmolenbeek-Hegebeek River, Lake Loosdrecht, Lake Veluwerandmeren, Suldaslagen River, Beiarelva River, Umealven River, Eman River, Dalälven River, Baltic Sea Coast, Sankey Brook, Great Ouse River, Tame River, Kennet River,Forth Estuary, Dee River, Tummel River, Lagan River, Case studies, Synthesis