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Study on Consumer Information on Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions of New Passenger Cars


Grünig, Max; Ian Skinner; Mary Ann Kong 2010: Study on Consumer Information on Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions of New Passenger Cars. Implementation of the Directive 1999/94/EC. Brussels.

Ian Skinner (IEEP)
Mary Ann Kong (BIO)

Megan Lewis (IEEP), Wojciech Szymaslki (ISD), Pirke Suoheimo (SYKE), Alena Dodoková (IEP) and Frans Oosterhuis (IVM)

141 pp.
Project ID
Table of Contents

Executive Summary
1. Implementation of Directive 1999/94/EC
1.1. Description of the Regulatory Framework
1.2. Case Studies on 10 Countries
1.2.1. Labelling
1.2.2. Guide on Fuel Economy
1.2.3. Poster
1.2.4. Promotional Material
1.2.5. Running Costs
1.2.6. Planned Modifications
1.2.7. Research Initiatives
1.2.8. Compliance Issues
1.3. The Up-Coming Review of Directive 1999/94/EC
Harmonisation of the Format of the Label
“Absolute” versus “Relative” Labelling
The Poster/Display
Promotional Literature
Non-Print Media
Extension of Labelling to N1 Vehicles (Light Commercial Vehicles)
Extension of Labelling to Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs)
Extension of Labelling to Used Cars
Definition of the LEEV
“Static” versus “Dynamic” Labelling Systems
Summary of Stakeholder Consultation in 2008
2. Consumer Behaviour
2.1. General Consumer Behaviour Research
2.1.1. Drivers of Consumer Behaviour
2.1.2. The use of Product Labels to Convey Environmental Information
2.1.3. Types of Product Labels
2.1.4. Other Information Provision Tools
2.2. Consumer Research on Car-Buying Behaviour
2.2.1. Consumer’s Priorities
2.2.2. Information Perception and Response
2.2.3. Comparison of Measures and Media
2.3. Lessons Learned
2.3.1. Lessons on Consumer Behaviour
2.3.2. Lessons on Labelling
3. Policy Options
3.1. Policy Options (Excluding Running Costs and Financial Incentives)
3.1.1. Harmonising Directive 1999/94/EC
3.1.2. Relative versus Absolute Label
3.1.3. Graded (A-G) versus Continuous Label
3.1.4. Dynamic versus Static Distribution of Labelling Schemes
3.1.5. Poster/ Guide on Fuel Economy – Print versus Internet
3.1.6. Advertising Code of Conduct
3.1.7. Provide Training to Sales People
3.1.8. Extending the Scope to Additional Vehicle Groups
3.1.9. Extending the Scope to Non-Print Media
3.1.10. Proposing Benefits for “A” Rated Cars – Bonus / Malus Incentives
3.2. Policy Options: Running Costs and Financial Incentives
3.2.1. Linking Directive 1999/94/EC to Taxation or Provision of Incentives
3.2.2. Linking Directive 1999/94/EC to Running Costs
3.2.3. Options for Displaying Running Costs
3.2.4. Recommendations for Displaying Running Costs
3.3. Conclusions and Next Steps
Upgrading the Label
Make the Poster Voluntary
Require Manufacturer and Independent Websites to Display CO2  Information
Require an Online Guide on Fuel Economy but do not Replace the Paper Version
Precisely Define the Requirements for CO2  Information in Promotional Material, Annex IV
Running Costs
Do not Extend Directive 1999/94/EC  to Additional  Vehicle Types
Initiate Consumer-based Market Research
UK Fuel Economy Label
US Fuel Economy Label
New Zealand Fuel Economy Label
Case Studies