The European Union (EU) wants to increase the share of renewable energy in the transport sector to 10% by 2020. This 10% target was set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), however -it only considers the use of biofuels in transport and assumes a grid-average for renewable electricity used. The study "Shifting Renewable Energy in Transport into the Next Rear" was performed to determine whether there are conditions under which it is possible and beneficial to amend the RED to include all renewable electricity, hydrogen and biomethane to count towards the 10% transport target. The final report is available for download.
Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) [pdf, 1.3 MB, English], the Renewable Energy Directive (RED), contains an overall 20% target for renewable energy uptake and a specific target for 10% renewable energy in transport. It is important to note that the transport target is not additional to the overall target. Currently, the RED provides Member States with the option of using either an EU average grid emissions factor or the national grid emissions factor for estimating the contribution of renewable electricity used in transport (primarily electric road vehicles and trains). The RED does not provide a specific approach for counting energy consumed in transport from biomethane injected into the grid or hydrogen produced from renewable sources.
The project focused on whether there are conditions under which it is possible and beneficial to count all of the renewable electricity, biomethane injected into the grid and renewable hydrogen towards the 10% transport target. If such conditions and benefits can be identified, then it would be justifiable to reform the simple averaging approach currently used in the RED. The project further involved a consideration of the specific circumstances, such as technical, legal and regulatory aspects related to e.g. the use of electric vehicles or biomethane from the grid. In addition, it considered the potential such an approach could have in stimulating greater uptake of renewable energy.
The project was led by CE Delft. Ecologic Institute was responsible for assessing the drivers for the uptake of renewable energy in the EU Member States to inform the Commission's thinking on whether transport sector developments and policies can act as a significant driver. Ecologic Institute was also responsible for assessing stakeholder input to the consultation process conducted in conjunction with this project.
The report [pdf, 2.7 MB, English] is available for download.