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Evaluating 15 Years of Transport and Environmental Policy Integration

Evaluating 15 Years of Transport and Environmental Policy Integration

TERM 2015: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe
The TERM 2015 report analyses how the transport sector and its effect on the environment have evolved in Europe since 2000, with a contribution on transport and biodiversity by Ecologic Institute.

Since 2000 the Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM) has monitored the progress of the integration of environmental objectives into transport policy in the EU. The TERM 2015 report investigates key developments in the transport sector with regards to environment, identifying what has improved and what has been a barrier to the sector's environmental performance. Ecologic Institute contributed to the TERM 2015 report with a chapter on transport and biodiversity. The full report is available for download.

Transport can negatively affect biodiversity in a variety of ways. The design and use of road, rail and waterborne transport infrastructure alters the quality and connectivity of habitats and can create physical barriers to the movement of plants and animals between habitat areas. Species can be injured or killed by vehicles, become isolated by habitat fragmentation, or exhibit behavioural changes that put their survival at risk, such as feeding on or near roads or changes in migratory behaviour. The development and use of transport infrastructure can also increase pollution levels in surrounding habitats and serve as a vector for the spread of non-native and invasive species. The chapter highlights a number of policies that have been introduced establishing procedures and obligations to minimise such consequences. However, gaps remain concerning their implementation in practical terms.

The report concludes that more ambitious measures and improved implementation are necessary in the transport sector to meet existing policy goals.


European Environment Agency (2015): Evaluating 15 years of transport and environmental policy integration - TERM 2015: Transport indicators tracking progress towards environmental targets in Europe. EEA Report No 7/2015, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Published In
EEA Report , No 7/2015
79 pp.
Project ID
Table of Contents

Executive summary
1 Introduction
1.1 Scope of this report
2 Europe's evolving transport and environment policy framework
2.1 General policy development
2.2 Cross-cutting and specific transport policies
3 Freight and passenger transport demand and modal split
3.1 Freight transport demand
3.2 Passenger transport demand
3.3 Energy use in the transport sector
3.4 Efficiency improvements and technology development
4 Environmental pressures from transport
4.1 Greenhouse gas emissions
4.2 Air pollution
4.3 Noise
4.4 Habitat fragmentation and biodiversity
5 Policies that have influenced transport's environmental impacts — three case studies
5.1 Monitoring CO2 emissions from light‑duty vehicles
5.2 Internalisation of external costs — Eurovignette Directive
5.3 Environmentally harmful subsidies
6 Looking to the future
6.1 Projected future transport trends within the EU
6.2 Key challenges concerning future transport trends
Abbreviations, acronyms and units
Annex 1 List of TERM transport indicators
Annex 2 Transport targets to 2050
Annex 3 Explaining the target paths
Annex 4 Survey of road pricing for freight transport in EEA member countries
Annex 5 Decomposition analysis: methodology and data

biodiversity, transport, European Union, TEN-T, Nature Directives, Natura 2000, Water Framework Directive, habitat fragementation, conservation, Europe