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EU Water Saving Potential (Part 1 – Report)


Dworak, Thomas; Maria Berglund; Cornelius Laaser 2007: EU Water saving potential (Part 1 –Report). ENV.D.2/ETU/2007/0001r. Berlin.

Pierre Strosser (ACTeon)
Josselin Roussard (ACTeon)
Benoit Grandmougin (ACTeon)
Maggie Kossida (NTUA)
Ismini Kyriazopoulou (NTUA)
Julio Berbel (Universidad de Córdoba)
Solveig Kolberg (Universidad de Córdoba)
Juan A. Rodríguez-Díaz (Universidad de Córdoba)
Pilar Montesinos (Universidad de Córdoba)
247 S.

1 Executive Summary
2 General Introduction and aim of the study
3 Definition of water saving and methodology for calculating savings
3.1 Definition of main terms
3.2 Methodology to calculate EU water savings
3.2.1 Limitations of the methodologies
3.2.2 Data gaps and uncertainties
4 Where Are We Today? Current EU water abstraction and uses
4.1 Sectoral water use
4.2 Future developments of EU water demand and savings "no policy change" scenario
4.2.1 General Assumptions
4.2.2 Household sector
4.2.3 Agricultural sector
4.2.4 Tourism
4.2.5 Industry (including electricity)
4.2.6 Technological improvements
4.2.7 The baseline scenario – what would happen without further measures?
4.2.8 Conclusions
5 Detailed sector assessment of potential water savings – technical measures
5.1 Water saving for the agriculture sector
5.1.1 General issues
5.1.2 Water saving measures and economic implications
5.1.3 Conclusions on water savings in agricultural sector
5.2 Potential Savings in the domestic sector
5.2.1 General figures
5.2.2 Technical water saving options
5.2.3 Potential water saving measures and costs – some illustrations
5.2.4 The specific case of the public sector
5.2.5 In summary
5.3 Industry
5.3.1 Water in industrial processes
5.3.2 Water saving technologies
5.3.3 Potential water saving measures and costs – some illustrations
5.3.4 In summary
5.4 Water for energy production
5.4.1 General issues
5.4.2 Water consumption of the energy sector
5.4.3 Technical measures for water saving in the energy sector
5.4.4 Potential water saving measures and costs – some illustrations
5.4.5 Links between energy and water savings
5.5 Water saving potential in the Tourism sector
5.5.1 General issues
5.5.2 Technical water saving options
5.5.3 Potential water saving measures and costs – some illustrations
5.5.4 In summary
6 Horizontal issues - non technical water saving measures
6.1 Water pricing
6.1.1 General issues
6.1.2 Water pricing in Europe
6.1.3 The role of economic instruments in reducing agricultural water abstraction
6.1.4 The role of economic instruments in reducing domestic water abstraction
6.1.5 Applying economic instruments to the tourism sector
6.1.6 The role of economic instruments in reducing industrial water abstraction
6.1.7 The role of economic instruments in reducing water use for electricity production
6.1.8 Conclusions
6.2 Drought management plans (DMP):
6.3 Educational issues and consumer behaviour
6.3.1 Current Consumer behaviour
6.3.2 Who are water savers?
6.3.3 Different Levels of changing behaviour
6.3.4 Water savings by raising awareness
6.4 Water Labelling
7 Investigating the potential benefits of water saving measures
7.1 Which potential benefits?
7.2 Methods and approaches to assess benefits
7.2.1 Assessing environmental benefits
7.2.2 Financial savings and avoided expenditures
7.2.3 Assessing economic benefits
7.2.4 Assessing social benefits
7.3 Illustrations
7.3.1 Monetary values of river flow improvements
7.3.2 Savings in water bills for the household sector
7.3.3 Savings in water bills for the industrial sector
7.3.4 Avoided costs of alternative sources of water
7.3.5 Economic benefits from water re-allocation
7.3.6 Economic benefits from a drought management plan
7.3.7 Environmental benefits from a improved irrigation efficiency
7.4 Conclusion
8 Today’s EU water saving potential- first indications
8.1 Technical saving versus maximum saving potential
8.2 Water savings in the agriculture sector
8.3 Water savings in the domestic and household sectors
8.3.1 Water savings in households
8.3.2 Calculations of water savings for the domestic sector
8.4 Potential water savings in the industry sector
8.5 Potential water saving in the electricity production
8.6 Potential water savings for tourism
8.7 Conclusions
9 Virtual Water in the context of water saving
9.1 Definitions
9.1.1 Imports, exports and national footprints
9.1.2 Advantages and disadvantages in using virtual water for water saving strategies
10 Conclusions
11 Bibliography
Annex I: Rain water Harvesting: Definition- Benefits – Uses - Calculations
Annex II: Examples on Drought Management Plans
Annex III: Water footprint for selected countries